XT RODENSTOCK 32MM F/4 IN-DEPTH REVIEW
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THE 21MM EQUIVALENT FOR FULL-FRAME MEDIUM FORMAT: PHASE ONE XT RODENSTOCK 32MM F/4 IN-DEPTH REVIEW!
With a 21mm FOV equivalent for full-frame medium format, this is one of the best lenses ever made for Tech cameras: see in this Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 in-depth review my thoughts about this legendary lens!
As many of you know, I love wide-angle lenses for my work. Wide-angle lenses are wonderful tools for a creative approach to composition in landscape photography, opening amazing expressive and interpretative possibilities to the photographer willing to experiment with them.
The Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 covers an angle of view of about 93 degrees on a full-frame medium format sensor (107 degrees when fully shifted, making it roughly equivalent to a 21mm lens in 35mm full-frame terms. This is a classic wide-angle focal length and one I always enjoyed using throughout my career on various systems, and I was extremely pleased to be able to work with it on medium format as well.
Before we start, let me remind you that, as always, this review is based on real use of the lens in the field, and while you’ll find controlled tests, you won’t find any charts or studio shots in it. As well, please keep in mind that all my reviews are made under the point of view of a Fine Art Landscape Photographer: if your genre of photography is different, my findings might not apply to you and your work.
Disclaimer: At the time of writing, I am a Phase One Ambassador. That said, I am a professional photographer looking for the best equipment for my work, I buy all my gear with my hard-earned cash, and I don’t get paid by anyone to write articles for my blog.
When I was building my Phase One XT kit, I had no doubt about getting the Phase One XT Rodenstock 23mm f/5.6. As my next-up lens, however, I debated between getting the lens in this Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 in-depth review and the Rodenstock 40mm, covering a FOV equivalent roughly to a 27.1mm in 35mm full-frame terms. While 28mm is also a focal length I love, in the end I decided to go for the 32mm instead: its slightly better optics, its slightly wider coverage and its full integration with the Phase One XT convinced me, despite it being slightly larger and heavier.
This article is the second of a series of four articles dedicated to Rodenstock lenses on the Phase One XT. Below, a list of all articles in this series:
Let’s get started now and see in this Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 in-depth review if it delivers!
BUILD, SIZE AND WEIGHT
The Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is fairly large and heavy compared to lenses of similar focal lengths such as the Rodenstock 28mm and 40mm. The main physical difference between getting this lens in Phase One XT mount vs getting it in Rodenstock Aperture Mount (or, if you can find it, in Copal 0 shutter), is in the protruding X-Shutter.
Due to the size and weight of the front optical elements, the Rodenstock 32mm f/4 traditionally was considered to be weaker the Copal 0 shutter mount. Things were supposedly better choosing the lens in Rodenstock Aperture Mount; finally, the Phase One X-Shutter’s industrial strength and sturdiness took care of that, making this one more incentive to get the lens in X-Shutter versus any of the alternatives.
Besides strengthening the whole lens assembly, the X-Shutter gives you full control of aperture and shutter speed directly from the IQ4 digital back in exchange for a weight penalty of about 200/250 gr (0,4/0,5 pound) against the same lens in Copal 0 or Rodenstock Aperture Mount. I really enjoy having such integration, and I am happy to carry a little extra weight in exchange for that.
In X-Shutter version, the lens barrel features just a focus ring, which Phase One calls “Ultra Fine Manual Focus”. The action of the ring itself is extremely smooth, and the focus throw is extra-long to ensure very precise focusing. The focus ring sits right on top of the Cambo-compatible lens mount, and two very useful finger tabs are available to help you rotate it.
Minimum focusing distance for the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is unmarked but taking the last marking at 0.4m I estimate it to be around 0.25-0.3m.
Like all tech camera lenses, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is not weather-sealed. Since I often use my gear in adverse weather conditions, I always carry a Think Tank Photo Emergency Camera Cover which works great in protecting the camera and the lens from the elements, while allowing me to operate them normally under it.
Precise focal length of the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is 33.09mm. With its 118 x 107 x 98mm (4.65 x 4.21 x 3.85 in) size and 1100 gr (2.42 lbs) weight, and with a filter thread of 86mm, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is in line with lenses covering a similar FOV in the full-frame medium format arena, but it’s on the heavier side of the spectrum for lenses covering an equivalent FOV in the small medium format camp.
While no lenses in the small medium format area currently cover the same FOV, for comparison the Hasselblad XCD 30mm f/3.5 is 83 x 88mm, has a 77mm filter thread and weighs 550 gr; the Fuji GF 30mm f/4 is 84 x 99.4mm, has a 58mm filter thread and weighs 510 gr; the Leica 30mm Elmarit-S f/2.8 is 88 x 128mm, has an 82mm filter thread and weighs 1100 gr. In the full-frame medium format camp, the PhaseOne 35mm f/3.5 is 111 x 119mm, has a 105mm filter thread (you need to use 150mm filters with it) and weighs 1370 gr; the Hasselblad HCD 35mm f/3.5 is 100 x 124mm, has a 95mm filter thread, and weighs 975 gr.
USE OF FILTERS
Thanks to the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4’s 86mm filter thread, I can use 100mm filters with it. 100mm filters won’t vignette with the lens unshifted, provided you choose your filter holder carefully; however, when you shift it all the way in both directions, even the thinner of 100mm filter holders might add a little vignette to the hard vignette already present when fully shifting this lens to the extreme corners of the image circle.
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IN USE: FOCUSING AND DIAPHRAGM
Like all tech camera lenses, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is manual focus only. For my Fine Art landscape work what counts the most, more than having the convenience of autofocus, is focusing precision. A very long focus throw, together with the Phase One IQ4’s powerful magnifying features, makes achieving precise focus extremely easy.
The Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 comes equipped with Phase One’s revolutionary X-Shutter. The X-Shutter electronically controls both diaphragm and shutter, allowing for full integration with the Phase One IQ4 either directly – when using the lens with the Phase One XT – or via a cable if you use any other lens mount supporting X-Shutter. In particular, this means that your aperture and shutter speed can be controlled via the IQ4’s touchscreen in all shooting modes supporting such controls, and that EXIF will automatically be populated with your shooting data.
SHARPNESS AT INFINITY
Methodology: using my usual “real world” test scene, I manually focused the lens on the trees on the far ridge in the center of the frame, using the maximum focus area magnification for precise focus, with the lens wide open. I then prepared 900 x 600px, 100% crops of the center, the top left corner and the mid-right side of the frame at full-stop apertures ranging from wide open to f/16. My Phase One XT had Firmware 8.01.0 installed. Capture One Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 lens profile has been applied, and a LCC profile has been created and applied to eliminate vignetting and colour cast.
Let’s start looking at the full scene first, to see how much coverage a 93 degrees angle of view will give you in the real world. The red rectangles mark the locations of the crops (click on the image to enlarge):
Let’s now examine the crops in detail, starting with the center of the frame (click on the images to enlarge):
Sharpness in the center is incredibly impressive: the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 starts razor sharp wide open, where it offers its strongest performance. Sharpness gently declines until f/16, where diffraction is visibly taking its toll. For work where sharpness in the center is critical, I’d happily use the lens between wide-open and f/8. F/11 would be the smallest aperture I’d recommend using, and only if necessary.
Let’s now examine the mid-right side of the frame (click on the images to enlarge):
In the mid-right of the frame, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 outputted a very good performance wide-open, improving at f/5.6 and f/8, with both being the best apertures of this lens in this portion of the frame. Performance at f/11 starts visibly declining, and at f/16 diffraction’s effects are clearly visible.
Finally, let’s check the top left corner (click on the images to enlarge):
In the top left corner, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is softer wide-open than it is over the rest of the frame; however, stopping down to f/5.6 improves things dramatically already. The lens is at its best at f/8, sharpness holds at f/11 and at f/16, as expected, diffraction starts to take its toll.
SHARPNESS AT CLOSE FOCUSING DISTANCE AND BOKEH
To examine sharpness at very close focusing distance, as well as to see how the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 draws out-of-focus areas, I focused on the Phillips screw right under the mailbox’s red flag in the lower right corner of the frame. Together with the full frame image I included 900 x 600px, 100% crops taken at the point of focus, to check out sharpness, and near-center crops to see how the lens behaves in out-of-focus areas near infinity. Again, Capture One Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 lens profile has been applied, and a LCC profile has been created and applied to eliminate vignetting and colour cast.
Let’s see the full image first, again to see how wide a 93 degrees angle of view is in the real world, as well as to show you the locations of the crops (click on the image to enlarge):
In this torture test, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 showed an extremely good performance focused up close in the far lower corner of the frame. The lens starts slightly soft wide-open, but it improves constantly stopping it down; best performance is at f/11-f/16. Smaller apertures clearly suffer from diffraction.
Let’s see now how the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 renders out-of-focus areas at far distances in the center of the frame (click on the images to enlarge):
Despite being a wide-angle lens with a FOV equivalent to that of a 21mm lens on 35mm full-frame, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 draws out-of-focus areas beautifully wide open, with a painterly, soft rendition that is truly pleasing. Stopping down, the lens progressively gains sharpness with each stop, retaining what I consider to be a beautiful rendition of OOF areas along the whole aperture range.
As we know, when working with full-frame medium format cameras we can’t expect the same depth of field created by lenses covering an equivalent field of view on 35mm full-frame. This lens is no exception, so if you need everything to be perfectly in focus all over the frame in near-far compositions with the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4, you’ll need to either use hyperfocal distance or to carefully place your focus point in your frame. In extreme cases, resorting to focus stacking will definitely help.
SHIFT AND FULL SHIFT STITCH
The ability to shift is one of the main reasons to choose a tech camera for your landscape and architectural work. Shift is useful to straighten converging lines when pointing the camera off level, of course, but is also useful to create images via stitching that would cover a wider angle of view than what using the lens unshifted would provide.
The Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4, thanks to an image circle of 90mm, when used on a full-frame medium format sensor such as the IQ4’s allows for about 16/13mm of shift in either direction. This is enough to have a completely useable, vignette-free image when shifting in one direction only at a time. However, if you plan on creating full stitch panoramas shifting the lens to all four extreme corners, expect to see some hard vignetting creeping in on the extreme corners. That said, the useable area is so vast that there definitely is a point in using shift to create a stitched, larger image with this lens. Of course, this is especially true if you plan on using a different crop than the native 4:3 offered by the Phase One IQ4.
To visually show you what I mean, I created two composite images, one at infinity and one at close focusing distance, stitching four single images taken with the back fully shifted in all directions (12/12mm, -12/12mm, 12/-12mm, and -12/-12mm). I’ll use these images here both to show you all the most common image ratio crops together with their resulting resolutions in Mp, and to check on the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4’s sharpness when shifted.
Let’s start having a look at the full image at infinity with crop overlays (click on the image to enlarge):
Below you’ll find a list of the resolution resulting from stitching & cropping against the resolution you’d get cropping just a single shot, for each image ratio, in descending order of “gain”. Stitched images on the left side, cropped single files on the right side:
1:1 | 16100 x 16100px = 259 Mp versus 10652 x 10652px = 113 Mp (+146 Mp)
16:9 | 20500 x 11531px = 236 Mp versus 14204 x 7990px = 113 Mp (+123 Mp)
5:4 | 18000 x 14400px = 259 Mp versus 13318 x 10652px = 141 Mp (+118 Mp)
3:2 | 19000 x 12666px = 240 Mp versus 14204 x 9470px = 134 Mp (+106 Mp)
4:3 | 18500 x 13875px = 256 Mp versus 14204 x 10652px = 151 Mp (+105 Mp)
As you can see, the increase in resolution and in coverage gained by stitching four fully-shifted images vs cropping a single shot is dramatically evident if you plan on cropping your image to 1:1, where you’ll gain over 145 Mp and quite a bit of coverage, slightly less so for 16:9, even less so for 5:4 and 3:2, and of course it will be the least evident if you plan on staying with the native 4:3 image ratio.
Relative gains aside, the absolute gain is quite sizeable when stitching this lens, both in terms of Mp and of FOV coverage, and this makes the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 an interesting alternative to carrying the 23mm, for those situations where stitching is possible. To show you in practice how close a full stitched image created with the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 will take you to an image created with the Phase One XT Rodenstock 23mm f/5.6, I prepared a 4:3 maximum useable crop of the fully stitched 32mm image, side-by-side with a full image created with the 23mm. Of course, both photos have been shot without moving the tripod (click on the images to enlarge):
As you can see, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 23mm f/5.6 unstitched still covers a slightly larger area compared to the fully shifted and stitched Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4. However, the difference is not dramatic in terms of coverage, and we have to keep in mind that stitching the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 will give you much more resolution (256 Mp versus 151). That said, please keep in mind that replacing the 23mm with the stitched 32mm is not always possible. Let me just give you a couple of examples:
1. Moving objects. If you have moving objects in your frame, such as cars, and you do even moderately short exposures, their position won’t necessarily match when you’ll try and stitch images taken even a few seconds apart.
2. If you plan on doing long exposures of moving clouds in the order of minutes, as I often do, stitching might become problematic if not overall impossible – the clouds will have moved enough between the two shots that their shapes won’t match when you try and stitch them.
That said, stitching the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 rather than carrying the 23mm is definitely a possibility to keep in mind, especially if you don’t do long exposures or if you don’t shoot moving targets.
Gaining coverage and resolution is great and replacing the 23mm with a stitched Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 photo is a wonderful possibility to have, but it would all be for naught if the resulting images weren’t up to standard, quality-wise. Creating samples to check sharpness for every shifted position at every aperture would make the review impracticably huge, and it would be a bit redundant as well. To give you an idea about how the lens behaves when stitched, I decided to add samples taken at three different positions at infinity and one at close distance. These samples have been shot at f/11, Capture One Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 lens profile has been applied, and a LCC profile has been created and applied to eliminate vignetting and colour cast from each of the four images before stitching them.
Let’s see the full images first, both at infinity and close focused, to show you the locations of the crops. Please also note how, at close focusing distances, the different magnification results in a slightly larger image circle and, therefore, in a little more room for shift – albeit with the presence of blue/yellow colour rings at the extreme of the image circle as well (click on the images to enlarge):
Let’s now examine the crops, starting with the three infinity ones followed by the close focused one (click on the images to enlarge):
Starting with the infinity crops, as you can see, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is razor sharp in the center at f/11, whereas in both far corners – with the lens fully shifted in opposite directions – the samples are slightly less sharp, but still perfectly useable for any kind of work.
Coming to the close focus crop, considering that we are at the very limit of the lens’ image circle (you can see vignetting creeping in on the lower right side of the crop) and that we are focusing very close, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 did a great job in retaining detail.
When examining sharpness, it’s worth keeping in mind that the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is a wide-angle lens with a fairly large image circle of 90mm, and it must resolve a pixel size of 3,76 micron all over that image circle. To give you an idea, 50 Mp small medium format sensors are both smaller at 44 x 33mm and have a larger pixel size of 5,3 micron. Currently, the only other sensors featuring a pixel size of 3,76 micron are 100 Mp small medium format and 61 Mp 35mm full-frame sensors, but their sizes are respectively just 44 x 33mm and 24 x 36mm, and since they don’t offer shift, their lenses only need to cover an image circle of 55mm. Having to cover such a large image area while providing such a high level of resolving power over the whole frame makes creating such a lens an optical tour-de-force!
The Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 does an amazing job, as far as sharpness all over the frame. Focused at infinity, the lens is razor sharp in the center of the frame wide-open and stays at exceptional levels until f/11; after that, diffraction starts affecting the results. In the far corners, the lens is slightly less sharp wide-open, but at f/5.6 it’s already useable for critical work, and at f/8 is just incredibly sharp. Best overall aperture for sharpness all over the frame when photographing a flat target at infinity is f/8.
At close focusing distances and focused in the far corner rather than in the center of the frame, the lens starts softer and constantly improves its sharpness until f/16, where diffraction takes its toll.
If interested, you’ll find Rodenstock own lens data and MFT charts here: LENSES FOR DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY.
In real world use, during my first outing with it I found the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 to be an amazing performer in terms of sharpness all over the frame.
LCC OR NOT LCC: VIGNETTE, COLOUR CAST AND COLOUR RENDITION
As to be expected with a wide-angle tech-camera lens, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 features some very visible, soft-vignette all along the aperture range. While I haven’t measured it scientifically, it feels like vignetting is around two stops.
If you don’t plan on leaving the vignette in for artistic purposes, or if you plan on at least reducing its amount, I’d strongly recommend creating an LCC profile using the appropriate white target provided by Phase One with the XT (see CREATING A LCC REFERENCE IMAGE for a good tutorial about it). This will solve all your vignetting problems, while giving you the possibility to fine tune the amount of vignetting correction any way you like. More, thanks to the new IQ4’s sensor, using a software-based solution to fix vignette won’t introduce any penalty in terms of noise or image quality degradations of sort.
Colour cast is a traditional issue with tech camera wide-angle lenses and digital backs. While the IQ4 is light years better than the older backs I used back in the day (P45+, P65+ and Leaf Aptus 12R), with wide angles such as the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 some colour cast is still visible. Luckily, the same LCC profile I recommended above to fix vignetting will also perfectly solve the colour cast issue with a click.
To show you both issues, and how creating an LCC solves them both at once, I created two sets of images taken respectively wide-open at f/4 and at f/11. I then prepared them with and without applying an LCC profile for you to gauge the differences (click on the images to enlarge):
As you can see, the LCC profile completely solves both the vignette & colour cast problems.
Once vignetting and colour casts have been taken care of, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 offers a beautiful colour rendition, with smooth colours and beautiful tonal transitions. More importantly, the images are very neutral, leaving me with all the room for maneuver I need for my post-processing and without pushing me in any predetermined direction.
To check for distortion, as always, I photographed my uninspiring garage door, which with its straight metal lines provides me with a perfect test scene for a distortion test. For your convenience, to help you check distortion easier I slightly increased contrast, added straight red lines in PP, turned the image horizontal and cut the frame in two, showing you just the top half of the frame. Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4’s profile has been applied in Capture One. Let’s see the results (click on the image to enlarge):
As you can see, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 with its lens profile applied is extremely well controlled for distortion: straight lines stay perfectly straight all over the frame.
FLARE AND CHROMATIC ABERRATIONS
Since I almost inevitably have a filter holder on the lens, for years, when working in the field, I never used – or even carried – a lens hood. Since I want my reviews to mimic my working conditions as closely as possible, during my tests I never use a lens hood as well. To make this as much of a torture test as possible, in the image below, I included the sun in the frame, keeping it close to the image’s corner. As well, I included a crop of the area surrounding the sun to check for contrast and chromatic aberrations (click on the images to enlarge):
As most wide-angle Rodenstock lenses, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is prone to flare: you can clearly see a slight loss of contrast around the sun, as well as variously coloured ghost images appearing in the frame. On the other hand, the lens shows no CA of any kind, even in high-contrast areas, and the loss in contrast visible around the sun is easily fixed in post-processing.
Since as mentioned I don’t even carry lens hoods with me when I work, to prevent my lenses from flaring I always carry with me a foldable, reflector-like grey card instead. It’s small, light, works perfectly as a “sun blocker” in eliminating flare and doesn’t prevent me from using filters when I need to do so.
As I write this Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 in-depth review, this is the only 21mm FOV equivalent lens available for medium format cameras, full-frame or otherwise. If you need this focal length for your medium format work, this is the only game in town. Slightly larger than tech camera lenses featuring closer focal lengths, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is one of the best lenses I have ever tested, features the revolutionary X-Shutter and is fully integrated with the Phase One XT. Such integration makes it extremely easy to use, both in the field and out of the field, making for a streamlined and efficient workflow that, personally, I find incomparably better than using tech camera lenses without X-Shutter.
Under a technical point of view, the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is an amazing lens. Extremely sharp all over the frame at f/8, the amount of detail created by this lens together with the Phase One IQ4 is something else. Add that the lens features no distortion and no chromatic aberration, and you have a winner. Nothing is perfect though, and neither is the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4. Flare is present when shooting into the sun, something easily fixed by shielding the lens’ front element. More, the lens features definite vignetting, which can easily be fixed it via an LCC profile or just left in – all or in part – for artistic purposes. A slight colour cast is also visible with this lens, and I recommend you correct it also via an LCC profile, an easy and effective fix as well.
The way we judge a lens artistically is, of course, a completely personal matter. Personally, I find the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 to draw beautifully, creating images full of detail, life and character. While I probably wouldn’t choose such a lens primarily for its bokeh, the rendition of out-of-focus areas of the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 is beautiful and very pleasing as well.
A MUST-HAVE LENS? THOUGHTS ON THE FOCAL LENGTH
The choice of focal lengths for our work is dictated by our aesthetics and by the necessities imposed upon us by our subject matter, and is therefore very personal. As I always say, there is no right or wrong here, just different tools for different photographers.
As I mentioned at the beginning of this article, I love wide-angle lenses for their aesthetics and for the possibilities they open, plus they suit my genre of photography perfectly. Therefore, for me considering the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 as a complement to my Phase One XT Rodenstock 23mm f/5.6 and my Phase One XT Rodenstock 50mm f/4 was an obvious choice: I love to be able to cover 15mm, 21mm and 30mm FOV equivalent each with a dedicated lens, without having to resort to stitching.
If you aren’t much into extreme ultra-wide-angle lenses, but still want to have at least one option in this range, then the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 might as well be the only wide-angle you’ll need for your tech camera setup.
So, should you get it? Well, as always it depends on your preferences in terms of focal lengths. If you love to have a 21mm FOV equivalent option in your kit, or if you are looking for just one wide-angle and aren’t into extreme ultra-wides, then this lens is a must have. I would heavily recommend you get the lens in X-Shutter, both for the extra strength in the shutter assembly area of the lens body and, especially, for the full integration it provides, even more so when used on the Phase One XT.
In conclusion, I was extremely impressed by the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4, it’s an optical masterpiece and if you need this focal length on a tech camera there is literally nothing out there like it. Highly recommended.
As always, the photographs are what counts the most. Due to Covid-19, I haven’t had a chance to use this lens intensively yet; I will post samples taken with the Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 as I’ll develop them.
Thanks for reading this Phase One XT Rodenstock 32mm f/4 in-depth review, I hope you enjoyed it! Why don’t you share it with your friends, or drop me a comment to let me know how you feel about this?
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